Panchkarma is the treatment that works at the base of problem and brings normalcy of Tri-Dosha as a preventive management of health and disease.
The word Panch means five. Karma is procedures of treatment for cleansing the body, balancing the doshas, to prevent early ageing. Panchkarma treatment is given in the form of Shaman and Shodhan method of treatment to calm vitiated doshas and imbalance.
Poorva Karma (Preparatory Procedure)
- Pachan (to improve digestion)
- Snehan (oleation by internal and external sesame oil application)
- Sudation (the swedan)
Pradhan Panchkarma (Major Procedure)
- Vaman (Emesis induced by herbs)
- Virechan (Purgation)
- Anuwasan Basti
- Niruh Basti
- Nasya (Nasal infiltration)
Note: Susruta, the surgeon has indicated induced blood letting as fifth karma.
Essentiality of Poorva Karma
The doshas that adhere deep into the tissue have to be softened to loose and to be displaced, have to be treated with smothering oleation internally and externally for further step of flushing out.
After Snehan, heat fomentation procedures are applied for displacement of the morbid matter.
Paschat Karma (Post Treatment Procedure)
This consists of regulated dietetics and dosages.
Pradhan karma (Major Procedure)
Vaman or Induced Emesis
The flushing out of the doshas by the oral route by giving herbs that induce vomiting is called Vaman.
The benefits of vomiting
By flushing out Kapha Dosha the lungs congestion is removed and patients gets relieved from asthma, kaph, cold, indigestion, swelling, and edema.
Restriction in giving vomiting treatment :
Persons suffering from or recently gone through hemoptesis, emaciation, fatigue, thirst, hunger, sexual intercourse, weight lifting, heavy physical exercise, worrisome mind, bleeding, continuous vomiting and who has been treated with Niruh and Anuwasan Basti should not take vaman treatment. A heart patient should not be given emetic treatment.
Basti is the procedure of introducing herbalised liquids into the body by rectal route, i.e. enemata of decoctions made up of herbs plus oils of sesame. Vata in Ayurveda is the master entity that controls nearly all physiological functions; the gastrointestinal, respiratory, cardiac, and neurovascular, and to keep Vata functions in normalcy, Basti or enemata procedures are recommended. For maintaining good health, and also to correct the Vata pathological dysfunction if occurs in the body, it is the Basti enemata that helps.
Colon route Basti
Since the field of Vata activity is lower abdomen thereby Basti is introduced for colon cleansing. Basti is of several varieties based on the (a) herbal contents (b) number of Basties, such as 30 nos. given in Karm Basti, 15 nos. given in Kala Basti and 8 nos. given in Yoga Basti.
Mainly Basties are given in 2 definite variations followed by 1. Oil Basti with little decoction is called Anuvasan Basti. 2 Decoction Basti with little oil is knows as Niruh Basti.
Abhyanga is a specialized method of massage by herbalized sesame oil to protect the body covered with skin, a sensitive guard like a fortress wall with rich nerve supply to convey immediate information to the brain cautioning to take care for protection if any external harmful accident occurs. Abhyanga, which is advocated to be practiced daily, keeps the skin of the body lustrous, smooth, soft and nutritious. The sensitive nerve endings through this touch therapy helps in balancing the tri-doshas – Vata, Pitta, Kapha. In this process herbalized oil is generously applied and rubbed slowly from above to downwards and is applied in five postures. Special attention and rubbing process should is done for the head, ear, the palm and sole as a special kind of massage. The oil of sesame prepared with rich herbal juices gives a facelift, energizing the whole body.
This process further gives corrective treatment for kapha and vata doshas, softens the skin and nourishes the 5 functional organs. It relieves roughness, dryness, sensationlessness and tiresomeness. This refreshes the mind, sharpens the eyesight, heals the creaks on feet, reduces the body pains particularly of the sciatic nerves. It has five postures of massage –Sitting in a chair with head massage, lying on the back, lying on the chest and stomach, lying on the right side and lying on the left side. Every posture should be given five to seven minutes. The boney joints should be given circular massage.
After massage the case should be allowed to rest for 15 minutes then a light warm wet towel should be applied to wipe of the oil. Then only he should go for bath.