Panchkarma is the treatment that works at the base of problem and brings normalcy of Tri-Dosha as a preventive management of health and disease.
The word Panch means five. Karma is procedures of treatment for cleansing the body, balancing the doshas, to prevent early ageing. Panchkarma treatment is given in the form of Shaman and Shodhan method of treatment to calm vitiated doshas and imbalance.
Note: Susruta, the famed ancient Ayurvedic surgeon has indicated induced blood letting in some cases as fifth karma.
The doshas that adhere deep into the tissue have to be softened to loose and to be displaced, have to be treated with smothering oleation internally and externally for further step of flushing out.
After Snehan, heat fomentation procedures are applied for displacement of the morbid matter.
This consists of regulated dietetics and dosages.
Vaman or Induced EmesisThe flushing out of the doshas by the oral route by giving herbs that induce vomiting is called Vaman.
The benefits of vomitingBy flushing out Kapha Dosha the lungs congestion is removed and patients gets relieved from asthma, kaph, cold, indigestion, swelling, and edema.
Restriction in giving vomiting treatment :Persons suffering from or recently experiencing hemoptesis, emaciation, excess fatigue, thirst and hunger, sexual intercourse, weight lifting, heavy physical exercise, worrisome mind, bleeding, continuous vomiting and who have been treated with Niruh and Anuwasan Basti should not take vaman treatment. Also heart patients should not be given this emetic treatment.
Basti :Basti is the procedure of introducing herbalised liquids into the body by rectal route. These enemata are decoctions made up of herbs plus oils of sesame. Vata in Ayurveda is the master entity that controls nearly all physiological functions; the gastrointestinal, respiratory, cardiac, and neurovascular. To keep Vata functioning normally, Basti or enemata procedures are recommended. For maintaining good health, and also to correct the Vata pathological dysfunction if occuring in the body, Basti enemata provides considerable help.
Colon route Basti Since the field of Vata activity is in the lower abdomen, thereby Basti is introduced for colon cleansing. Basti is of several varieties based on the (a) herbal contents (b) number of Bastis (such as 30 nos. given in Karm Basti, 15 nos. given in Kala Basti and 8 nos. given in Yoga Basti).
Mainly Bastis are given in 2 definite variations followed by : 1. Oil Basti with little decoction is called Anuvasan Basti. 2. Decoction Basti with little oil is known as Niruh Basti.
Abhyanga Abhyanga is a specialized method of massage by herbalised sesame oil to protect the body. It is directed on the skin, a sensitive guard- like fortress wall with rich nerve supplies to convey immediate information to the brain and cautioning to take care for protection if any external harmful accident occurs. Abhyanga, which is advocated to be practiced daily, keeps the skin of the body lustrous, smooth, soft and nutritious. The sensitive nerve endings through this touch therapy helps in balancing the tri-doshas – Vata, Pitta, Kapha. In this process herbalized oil is generously applied and rubbed slowly from above to downwards and is applied in five postures. Special attention and rubbing process are done for the head, ear, the palm and sole as a special kind of massage. The oil of sesame, prepared with rich herbs, energizes and revitalizes the whole body.
This process further gives important corrective treatment for kapha and vata dosha imbalances, softens the skin and nourishes the 5 functional organs. It relieves roughness, dryness, and sensation-lessened skin.. This refreshes the mind and body, sharpens the eyesight, heals the cracks on feet, and reduces body pains (particularly of the sciatic nerves). It has five postures of massage –Sitting in a chair with head massage, lying on the back, lying on the chest and stomach, lying on the right side and lying on the left side. Every posture is given attention over five to seven minutes. The joints such as knees, elbows are given a circular massage.
After massage the patient rests for 15 minutes, then a light warm wet towel is applied to wipe of the oil. Then only he goes for shower.